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Innovative technologies: concepts, types, spheres of application

Innovative technologies are sets of methods and means that support the stages of implementation of innovation, providing innovative activity. Technologies focused on the formation of systemic, creative, technical thinking and the ability to generate non-standard technical ideas, when solving creative, production tasks [2].

The concept of innovation, is quite diverse and depends mainly on its application. In short, innovation is the successful use of new ideas. For a company, for example, it means revenue growth, entering new markets, increasing profits. Innovation should cause a significant impact on the pricing structure, market share of the company’s revenues, etc. Continuous improvement, as a rule, creates a competitive advantage in the medium and long term, which is able to maintain the competitiveness of products in terms of costs.

The different types of innovation can be classified in several ways.

Business model innovation, it consists of changes in the business model, which means how the product or service is offered in the marketplace. This does not necessarily involve changes in the product or even in the manufacturing process, but it reflects how the product is brought to market.

For example, a consumer rents a car, pays a monthly fee to use the vehicle, including insurance, maintenance and replacement with newer models each year. Compared to the traditional business model in which the car is sold.

Incremental innovation, it reflects small continuous improvements in products or product lines.

For example, the evolution of CDs, the advent of dual disks that can store twice as much information.

Radical Innovation, it represents a radical change in the way a product or service is consumed. It usually brings a new paradigm to a market segment that changes the existing business model.

Innovation is very important for businesses because innovation can generate a competitive advantage in the medium and long term. Innovation is important for the sustainability of companies and countries in the future. Innovation has the ability to add value to companies’ products, differentiating it, even for a moment, in a competitive environment. Innovation is important because it allows companies to enter new markets, increase revenues, fulfill new partnerships, master new knowledge and increase the value of their brands.

Obviously, the benefits of innovation are not limited to companies. Innovation enables countries and regions to increase employment and income. In general, companies are at the center of innovation. It is through them that technologies, inventions, products, and finally ideas come to market. The vast majority of large companies have entire departments dedicated to innovation, representing research and development in laboratories that have a number of researchers. These departments have different functions, from external research and product and process development, to making investments or grants, through prototype development, market research and production planning.

The predominant areas of innovation today are developments in the areas of energy efficiency, security, ecology, information technology, and innovation in construction. It is also possible to distinguish several main profiles:

– information and communication technologies;

– innovative technologies and equipment for oil, gas and petrochemical industry;

– industrial automation and intellectual systems;

– biotechnologies;

– nanotechnologies;

– renewable energy;

– high-tech medicine and biomedical engineering;

– medical and laboratory equipment (accessories);

– infrastructure;

– geology and new materials;

– optics, photonics and lasers;

– aerospace technologies.

Among the latest developments are:

– resource-efficient rolling stock running on liquefied natural gas;

– a new generation of devices for water disinfection;

– modern lithium-ion batteries with increased capacity;

– technology to increase efficiency in engines, regardless of the type of fuel;

– production of electricity from alternative sources;

– aerosol nano-disinfectants for human biological protection;

– unique teleoperated underwater vehicle;

– new means of protection against heat and cold in the system “human-clothing-environment”;

– discharge-pulse technology to strengthen foundations;

– fundamentally new energy converter;

– trenchless technology of water mains repair;

– induction lighting.

To highlight the technologies that have the potential to generate billions of dollars for developers in 2015, Business Insider turned to research from leading analyst firms.